Aircraft Performance
The
KOCH Chart for Altitude and Temperature Effects(image)
Density Altitude Chart(image)
Center of Gravity Limits
for Cessna 182(image)
Takeoff Distance Performance
for Cessna 182 #1(image)
Takeoff Distance Performance
for Cessna 182 #2(image)
Pressure Altitude Correction Chart
Sample Weight and Balance for Cessna 182
Procedures for Working
Weight and Balance Sheet
Examples using charts to determine High Density Altitude
Performance
Using KOCH Chart to determine Performance
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE CORRECTION CHART [top]
ALITITUDE SETTING IN HG. 
ALTITUDE ADDITION FOR
OBTAINING PRESSURE ALTITUDE 


28.3 
1,533 
28.4 
1,436 
28.5 
1,340 
28.6 
1,244 
28.7 
1,148 
28.8 
1,053 
28.9 
957 
29.0 
863 
29.1 
768 
29.2 
673 
29.3 
579 
29.4 
485 
29.5 
392 
29.6 
298 
29.7 
205 
29.8 
112 
29.9 
20 
29.92 
0 
30.0 
73 
30.1 
165 
30.2 
257 
30.3 
348 
30.4 
440 
30.5 
531 
30.6 
622 
30.7 
712 
30.8 
803 
Sample Weight
and Balance for Cessna 182 [top]

Weight 
Arm 
Moment 
Empty Weight 
1772 
35.72 
63300 
Fuel (56 gal. max) 
__________ 
46.0 
__________ 
6# per gallon 



Pilot & Passenger 
__________ 
37.0 
__________ 
Rear Passengers 
__________ 
74.0 
__________ 
Baggage A 
__________ 
97.0 
__________ 
120# max 



Baggage B 
__________ 
115.0 
__________ 
80# max 



Total Weight
__________ 
Total Moments __________ 
MAXIMUM TAKEOFF WEIGHT2950#
MAXIMUM
LANDING WEIGHT 2950#
2950 39.5  48.5
2400 34.4  48.5
2900 39.0  48.5
2300 33.4  48.5 Total Moment
= CG
2800 38.1  48.5
2200 33.0  48.5 Total Weight
2700 37.2  48.5
2100 33.0  48.5
2600 36.2  48.5
2000 33.0  48.5
2500 35.4  48.5
PROCEDURES
FOR WORKING WEIGHT AND BALANCE SHEET [top]
STEP 1 Using
your aircraft's weight and balance information, determine the empty weight
of the aircraft and the ARM for that weight. Multiply the weight times
the ARM and you will get the Moments. If you are only given the Empty
Weight and the Moment, just divide the Moment by the Weight and you will
get the ARM for the empty weight.
STEP 2 Determine
the number of gallons of fuel your aircraft will hold. Refer to the Sample
Loading Problems or your Weight and Balance information and obtain the
ARM for the fuel.
STEP 3 Determine
the ARM for the pilot and front passenger seats, the rear passenger seats
and baggage areas.
STEP 4 Using
your aircraft's Center Of Gravity Limits chart, start at gross weight
and list the CG Limits for that weight. Then proceed down on the CG Limits
chart and determine the forward and aft limits for each 100# of weight.
List those limits at the bottom of the weight and balance sheet you are
developing.
STEP 5 To work
a weight and balance problem, place the weight in each weight category.
Then multiply the Weight times the ARM and record the Moments.
STEP 6 Add up
the total Weight and then add up the total Moments. Your total Weight
should not exceed your gross weight. If so, make adjustments so that the
weight does not exceed gross weight.
STEP 7 Next,
divide the Total Moments by the Total Weight. This will give you a figure
that will tell you the CG location at the calculated weight of the aircraft.
STEP 8 Refer
to the information you recorded on the CG Limits for each weight. If the
CG falls within the limits of the forward and aft limits for that weight,
then your aircraft is loaded within the proper CG Limits. If it does not
fall within the CG Limits, them rearrange the weight so that it does fall
within the proper limits for that weight.
This Weight and
Balance Sheet is aircraft specific. Make one up for each aircraft that
you fly. Then, working a weight and balance problem stops being a problem
as the time required to work this form is less than 3 minutes. Therefore,
there is NO EXCUSE FOR FLYING AN AIRCRAFT OVER GROSS WEIGHT AND OUT
OF CG LIMITS.
BE SURE,
RATHER THAN SORRY
EXAMPLES USING CHARTS
TO DETERMINE HIGH DENSITY ALTITUDE PERFORMANCE IN SAMPLE AIRCRAFT*[top]
Using the charts provided in this section one can
work sample problems to determine aircraft performance.
Example #1
South Lake Tahoe, California
field elevation 6264 feet MSL.
Runway length 
8544 feet 
8544 feet 
Temperature 
85º F 
30º C 
Field elevation 
6264 feet 
6264 feet 
Altimeter setting 
29.92 
30.00 
Pressure Altitude 
6264 MSL 
6190 MSL 
Density Altitude 
9310 feet 
9220 feet 
Example #2
Truckee Airport, Truckee, California
field elevation 5900 feet MSL.
Runway length 
7000 feet 
7000 feet 
Temperature 
90º F 
33º C 
Field Elevation 
5900 feet 
590 feet 
Altimeter setting 
29.92 
30.00 
Pressure Altitude 
5900 feet 
5826 feet 
Density Altitude 
9186 feet 
9096 feet 
Example #3
Gansner Field, Quincy, California
field elevation 3415 feet MSL
Runway length 
4100 feet 
4100 feet 
Temperature 
94º F 
33º C 
Field elevation 
3415 feet 
3415 feet 
Altimeter setting 
29.92 
30.00 
Pressure Altitude 
3341 feet 
3338 feet 
Density Altitude 
6397 feet 
6307 feet 
Example #4
Alpine County Airport, Markleeville, CA
field elevation 5867 feet MSL
Runway length 
4440 feet 
Temperature 
90º F 
Field elevation 
5867 feet 
Altimeter setting 
29.92 
Pressure Altitude 
5867 
Density Altitude 
9146 feet 
*Note: The temperatures
and altimeter settings shown here represent actual temperatures and
altimeter settings recorded at the above airports. 
USING
KOCH CHART TO DETERMINE PERFORMANCE[top]
Example #1
South Lake Tahoe Airport,
Cessna 182.
Takeoff Weight 2950#
Pressure Altitude 6264 feet MSL
Temperature 85º F
Sea level takeoff distance 1490 feet
% increase in takeoff distance 200% or 2980 feet
Total takeoff distance 1490 + 2980 = 4370 feet
% reduction in rate of climb 70% ( if aircraft climbs at 500 fpm
at sea level then subtract 70% or 350 fpm for a climb rate of just
150 feet per minute.)
Takeoff Weight 2400#
Pressure Altitude 6264 feet MSL
Temperature 85 degrees F
Sea level takeoff distance 930 feet
% increase in takeoff distance 200% or 1860 feet
Total takeoff distance 930 + 1860 = 2790 feet
% reduction in rate of climb 70% (if aircraft climbs at 700 fpm
at sea level then subtract 70 % or 490 fpm for a climb rate of just
210 feet per minute.)
Example #2
Truckee Airport, Cessna 182.
Takeoff Weight 2950#
Pressure Altitude 5900 feet MSL
Temperature 90º F
Sea level takeoff distance 1650 feet
% increase in takeoff distance 200% or 3300 feet
Total takeoff distance 1650 + 3300 = 4960 feet
% reduction in rate of climb 74% (if aircraft climbs at 500 fpm
at sea level then subtract 74% or 370 fpm for a climb rate of just
130 feet per minute.)
Takeoff Weight 2400#
Pressure Altitude 5900 feet MSL
Temperature 90 degrees F
Sea level takeoff distance 950 feet
% increase in takeoff distance 200% or 1900 feet
Total takeoff distance 950 + 1900 = 2850 feet
% reduction in rate of climb 74% (if aircraft climbs at 700 fpm
at sea level then subtract 74% or 518 fpm for a climb rate of just
182 feet per minute.
Example #3
Gansner Airport, Quincy,
CA
Takeoff Weight 2950#
Pressure Altitude 3341 feet MSL
Temperature 94º F
Sea level takeoff distance 1540 feet
% increase in takeoff distance 100% or 1540 feet
Total takeoff distance 1540 + 1540 = 3080 feet
% reduction in rate of climb 56% ( if aircraft climbs at 500 fpm
at sea level then subtract 56% or 280 fpm for a climb rate of just
220 feet per minute.)
Takeoff Weight 2400#
Pressure Altitude 3341
Temperature 94 degrees F
Sea level takeoff distance 960 feet
% increase in takeoff distance 100% or 960 feet
Total takeoff distance 960 + 960 = 1920 feet
% reduction in rate of climb 56% ( if aircraft climbs at 700 fpm
at sea level then subtract 56% or 392 fpm for a climb rate of just
308 feet per minute.)
Example #4
Alpine County Airport, Markleeville,
CA
Takeoff Weight 2950#
Pressure Altitude 5867 feet
Temperature 90º F
Sea level takeoff distance 1510 feet
% increase in takeoff distance 180% or 2718 feet
Total takeoff distance 1510 + 2718 = 4218 feet (Note: Runway length
of 4440’)
% reduction in rate of climb 72% (if aircraft climbs at 500 fpm
at sea level then subtract 72% or 360 fpm for a climb rate of just
140 fpm.)
Takeoff Weight 2400#
Pressure Altitude 5867 feet
Temperature 90º F
Sea level takeoff distance 960 feet
% increase in takeoff distance 180% or 1728 feet
Total takeoff distance 960 + 1728 = 2688 feet
% reduction in rate of climb 72% (if aircraft climbs at 700 fpm
at sea level then subtract 72% or 504 fpm for a climb rate of just
196 feet per minute.)

